Three main goals in treatment of choroidal melanoma are: Destroy or remove the tumor to prevent metastasis, maintain vision, and preserve the eye. Although enucleation and surgical resection are available, most patients in the United States and Europe today are treated with plaque radiation therapy.
Can choroidal melanoma be cured?
Even though the melanoma is cured and in remission in the eye, life-long systemic monitoring for metastasis is necessary, as metastasis could have occurred before the eye cancer was discovered.
How is choroidal melanoma treated?
Treatment of small choroid melanoma may include the following:
- Watchful waiting.
- Plaque radiation therapy.
- Charged-particle external-beam radiation therapy.
- Gamma Knife therapy.
- Surgery (resection or enucleation).
What is the prognosis of choroidal melanoma?
Choroidal melanoma is a disease with a high mortality rate, usually irrespective of the chosen treatment modality. About 30-50% of patients with choroidal melanoma will die within 10 years from diagnosis and treatment. Death is usually secondary to distant metastases, and the risk is greatest in larger tumors.
How fast does choroidal melanoma grow?
Choroidal melanomas tend to be very slow-growing, but because they often do not cause symptoms or visual changes when they are small, many are not recognized until they grow to larger sizes.
What size is a large choroidal melanoma?
Rarely such eyes have to be secondarily removed. Eye cancer specialists try to preserve eyes, even if the eye had reduced vision. Large-sized Choroidal Melanoma: Very large choroidal melanomas (greater than 22 mm width) may be treated by initial removal of the eye (enucleation).
How rare is choroidal melanoma?
Choroidal melanomas are relatively rare, with an incidence of approximately five to six cases per one million people, which equates to about 1,400 cases in the United States each year.
What is considered a medium choroidal melanoma?
This system divides eye melanomas into small, medium, and large: Small: Between 1 mm and 3 mm in height and between 5 mm and 16 mm across. Medium: Between 3.1 mm and 8 mm in height and no more than 16 mm across.
Is choroidal melanoma fatal?
If it spreads, this cancer can be fatal. Although choroidal melanoma is rare, it is the most common eye cancer in adults. It usually occurs in people who are middle-aged or older.
Is choroidal melanoma primary or secondary?
Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor and the second most common type of primary malignant melanoma in the body.
Does melanoma decrease life expectancy?
This means 92 of every 100 people diagnosed with melanoma will be alive in 5 years. In the very early stages the 5-year survival rate is 99%. Once melanoma has spread to the lymph nodes the 5-year survival rate is 63%. If melanoma spreads to other parts of the body, the 5-year survival drops to just 20%.
How long does it take for eye melanoma to spread?
There is no known cause, though incidence is highest among people with lighter skin and blue eyes. Approximately 50% of patients with OM will develop metastases by 10 to 15 years after diagnosis (a small percentage of people will develop metastases even later i.e. 20-25 years after their initial diagnosis).
Where does choroidal melanoma metastasis?
The main site of metastases from choroidal melanoma is the liver, and the highest frequency of liver metastasis is within 4 years after treatment of the primary tumor. Three cases of metastatic disease have been reported 36, 40, and 42 years after enucleation.