How common are borderline ovarian tumors?

Borderline ovarian tumors comprise about 15%–20% of all epithelial ovarian malignancies [2, 3] with an incidence of 1.8–4.8 per 100,000 women per year [3–5].

Can borderline ovarian tumors spread?

Borderline ovarian tumors, often referred to as “low malignant potential” tumors, are not invasive but also not completely benign. Their behavior can also vary based on microscopic features, and some are more likely to recur or spread than others.

Are borderline ovarian tumors staged?

Borderline ovarian tumors are staged according to the FIGO classification of ovarian cancer. Many clinicians group stages II-IV together for prognostic consideration. Another common component of staging is the description of the type of implants, as these have significant prognostic value.

What percent of ovarian tumors are benign?

Overall, they account for 20 to 25% of all tumors, benign as well as malignant, of the ovary. Approximately 3% are malignant. Malignant germ cell tumors include dysgerminomas, endodermal sinus tumors, embryonal carcinomas, and nongestational choriocarcinomas.

What is the most common benign ovarian tumor?

Fibromas are the most common benign ovarian neoplasms. These tumors occur most commonly in women of postmenopausal age. They are unilateral and are often at least 3 cm in size. Fibromas are connective-tissue tumors that arise from the ovarian cortical stroma.

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What is the histologic feature that differentiates borderline ovarian tumors from invasive ovarian cancers?

Increase in nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio. Slight to complex branching of epithelial papillae and pseudopapillae. Epithelial budding and cell detachment into the lumen. No destructive stromal invasion – A major component in differentiating malignant from borderline tumors.

What is Seromucinous borderline tumor?

Seromucinous borderline tumors (SMBTs) are characterized by papillary architecture reminiscent of serous tumors but composed of mucinous epithelium similar to that of the endocervix. These tumors are associated with endometriosis [1.

Can a benign ovarian tumor become malignant?

Benign ovarian tumors usually grow slowly and rarely become malignant. They include the following: Benign cystic teratomas: These tumors are also called dermoid cysts because although derived from all 3 germ cell layers, they consist mainly of ectodermal tissue.

What is classed as a high CA-125 level?

Generally speaking, the normal range of CA-125 is considered to be 0-35 units/mL, while a level above 35 units/mL is considered to be a high CA-125 level.

How do you know if an ovarian cyst is cancerous?

Oftentimes imaging tests like ultrasound or MRI can determine if an ovarian cyst or tumor is benign or malignant. They may also want to test your blood for CA-125, a tumor marker, or preform a biopsy if there is any question. High levels of CA-125 may indicate the presence of ovarian cancer.

How fast can an ovarian mass grow?

Dermoid cysts are thought to be very slow growing, with an average growth rate of 1.8 mm/year in premenopausal women. In fact, rapid growth of an ovarian mass, greater than 2 cm per year, has been used to exclude ovarian teratomas as a diagnostic consideration.

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What is the average size of an ovarian tumor?

The average measurement was 4.8 cm in advanced disease, and was 10.7 cm in early stage disease. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions: Overall, patients with early stage ovarian cancer have diseased ovaries that are more than twice as large as those found in advanced disease.

Can a solid ovarian mass be benign?

Solid masses are most commonly pedunculated fibroids, but can be benign ovarian tumors, fibromas, thecomas, malignant ovarian tumors, or an ovarian torsion. The most common benign ovarian neoplasm is the cystic teratoma.