What is considered the most common oncologic emergency?

Neutropenic fever (NF) is one of the most well-known oncologic emergencies. Up to 80% of patients receiving chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies will develop NF at least once during the course of therapy.

What are 5 major oncologic emergencies that the nurse should report as soon as possible?

The common oncologic emergencies include Superior Vena Cava Syndrome (SVCS) and Superior Mediastinal Syndrome (SMS), Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS), Hyperleukocytosis and Febrile Neutropenia.

Which of the following is considered an oncological emergency?

Most oncologic emergencies can be classified as metabolic, hematologic, structural, or treatment related. Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic emergency that presents as severe electrolyte abnormalities. Stabilization is focused on vigorous rehydration, maintaining urine output, and lowering uric acid levels.

What is a metabolic oncologic emergency?

Metabolic emergencies include tumor lysis syndrome, hypercalcemia of malignancy, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).

Why is superior vena cava syndrome and oncologic emergency?

The superior vena cava (SVC) is a large blood vessel that sends blood from the upper body and head to the heart. SVC syndrome happens when blood flow through the superior vena cava is blocked. SVC syndrome is an oncologic emergency, which is a serious health problem caused by the cancer itself or its treatment.

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What is a pediatric oncologic emergency?

They are defined as acute, life-threatening events related to the patient’s neoplasm or its treatment, which may lead to death.

What is a hematologic emergency?

Hematologic emergencies may be defined as sudden or unexpected life-threatening events in clinical hematology and oncology which require immediate action predominantly based on clinical judgements and supported only by investigations that can be expected to produce results rapidly.

Is hypercalcemia an oncologic emergency?

Two oncologic emergencies are hypercalcemia of malignancy and tumor lysis syndrome. Pharmacists play an essential role in appropriately managing the pharmacotherapeutic agents used for prevention and treatment of oncologic emergencies in order to improve quality of life, even in the setting of terminal illness.

What causes febrile neutropenia?

Causes. Febrile neutropenia can develop in any form of neutropenia, but is most generally recognized as a complication of chemotherapy when it is myelosuppressive (suppresses the bone marrow from producing blood cells).

What causes hypercalcemia of malignancy?

The pathophysiology of hypercalcemia of malignancy is mainly through three mechanisms: excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), bony metastasis with the release of osteoclast activating factors, and production of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D (calcitriol).

Which of the following symptoms might a patient experience with TLS?

Clinical symptoms include hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, lethargy, hematuria, muscle cramps, syncopy, heart failure, and cardiac dysthymias.

Where is brachytherapy done?

Placement may be inside a body cavity or in body tissue: Radiation placed inside a body cavity. During intracavity brachytherapy, a device containing radioactive material is placed in a body opening, such as the windpipe or the vagina. The device may be a tube or cylinder made to fit the specific body opening.

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What are the signs and symptoms of tumor lysis syndrome?

Symptoms of TLS include:

  • nausea.
  • vomiting.
  • diarrhea.
  • muscle cramps or twitches.
  • weakness.
  • numbness or tingling.
  • fatigue.
  • decreased urination.