You asked: How the telomerase therapies can be used in cancer treatment?

Due to telomerase inhibition, activity, or expression, these drugs might kill tumor cells by allowing telomeres to shrink or by provoking apoptosis. First of all, this process might have a chance to be cell-specific without serious side effects (Fig.

What is the role of telomerase in cancer?

Telomerase activity is closely related to the life stages of the body. The enzyme is active during embryonic development. Cancer cells are characterized by high telomerase activity, which enables cells to divide indefinitely. Telomerase is active in 85–95% of cancers (3,4).

Why is telomerase a potential target for cancer therapy?

Telomerase is an attractive target antigen for cancer immunotherapy because it is expressed almost universally in human cancers and is functionally required to sustain malignant tumor long-term growth [87].

How does telomerase enable cancer cells?

Cancer cells often avoid senescence or cell death by maintaining their telomeres despite repeated cell divisions. This is possible because the cancer cells activate an enzyme called telomerase, which adds genetic units onto the telomeres to prevent them from shortening to the point of causing senescence or cell death.

Why telomerase inhibitors are used as anti cancer agents?

Telomerase inhibitors are being considered as potential anticancer drugs with the hope that the lack of telomerase expression in normal somatic cells would result in a higher specific therapy with fewer side effects than conventional chemotherapy.

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How do telomerase contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer?

TL is critically important in normal cells, and telomere shortening can—in combination with other oncogenic changes—promote genome instability, potentially stimulating initiation of the early stages of cancer.

How does the telomerase work?

How does telomerase work? The enzyme binds to a special RNA molecule that contains a sequence complementary to the telomeric repeat. It extends (adds nucleotides to) the overhanging strand of the telomere DNA using this complementary RNA as a template.

How can telomerase be inhibited?

The RNA component of telomerase has also been a popular and effective target for inhibiting telomerase activity in cancer cells. As in the case for TERT transcript knockdown, antisense oligonucleotides against the human TR template can be employed to reduce or eliminate telomerase activity as described in Chapter 9.

What could be a negative effect of telomerase activity?

A final concern is that telomerase inhibitors could lead to increased genomic instability in surviving cells (Hackett and Greider, 2002, Harrington and Robinson, 2002), leading to more advanced or aggressive tumors.

Do Normal cells have telomerase?

Since first discovered in Tetrahymena thermophila in 1985 (82), telomerase activity was found to be absent in most normal human somatic cells but present in over 90% of cancerous cells and in vitro-immortalized cells (124, 210).