Stage IV yolk sac tumours of extragonadal origin are rarely reported in the literature. Hence, diagnosis and treatment often pose a challenge for emergency care unit doctors, gynaecologists, and oncologists. However, it can be a potentially curable disease. Moreover, patients’ fertility can also be preserved.
Is yolk sac tumors curable?
Yolk sac tumors can be cured if treated in the early stages.
How do you cure a yolk sac?
The optimal treatment for yolk sac tumor is chemotherapy combined with postchemotherapy residual mass excision, but the prognosis remains poor. We prefer this approach when possible. In the literature, there are some small series and cases reports about mediastinal yolk sac tumors.
How rare is a yolk sac tumor?
Yolk sac tumor (YST) of the ovary is a rare germ cell tumor comprising about 1% of all ovarian malignancies. YST usually occurs as a rapidly growing unilateral tumor in young women.
Is yolk sac a cancerous tumor?
A rare type of cancer that begins in germ cells (cells that form sperm or eggs). Yolk sac tumors occur most often in the ovary or testicle, but they may also occur in other areas of the body, such as the chest, abdomen, or brain.
Can a yolk sac tumor arise from a mature cystic teratoma?
Final Diagnosis — Yolk sac tumor. FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Yolk sac tumor arising in association with mature cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst). DISCUSSION: Yolk sac tumor (also known as endodermal sinus tumor) of the ovary is a malignant germ cell neoplasm.
Is seminoma malignant?
Seminoma is a malignant germ cell tumor that involves most commonly the testicle or less frequently the mediastinum, the retroperitoneum, or other extra-gonadal sites. They are common among men ages 15-34 years old.
What is secondary yolk sac?
The secondary yolk sac is the definitive yolk sac. It gives rise to the first blood cells of the embryo and is highly vascularised. The secondary yolk sac ensures nutritional supply for the early embryo before the chorion is sufficiently developed to perform this function.
Why it is called yolk sac tumor?
A yolk sac tumor is a rare, malignant tumor of cells that line the yolk sac of the embryo. These cells normally become ovaries or testes; however, the cause of a yolk sac tumor is unknown. It is most often found in children before the ages of 1 to 2, but can occur throughout life.
What is a yolk sac in pregnancy?
What Is the Yolk Sac? In early pregnancy, the yolk sac functions as a source of nourishment for the developing fetus. It’s the first structure to be visible within the gestational sac, which envelopes the developing fetus and the amniotic fluid. 1. The gestational sac looks like a white rim around a clear center.
Can teratomas be malignant?
A malignant teratoma is a type of cancer consisting of cysts that contain one or more of the three primary embryonic germ layers ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Because malignant teratomas have usually spread by the time of diagnosis, systemic chemotherapy is needed.
What is the most common parotid tumor?
The most common tumor of the parotid gland is the pleomorphic adenoma, which represents about 60% of all parotid neoplasms, as seen in the table below.
Does the yolk sac become the placenta?
In these early weeks, the embryo attaches to a tiny yolk sac. This sac provides nourishment to the embryo. A few weeks later, the placenta will form in full and will take over the transfer of nutrients to the embryo.
Is Wilms tumor common?
Wilms’ tumor is the most common type of kidney cancer in children. Wilms’ tumor is a rare kidney cancer that primarily affects children. Also known as nephroblastoma, it’s the most common cancer of the kidneys in children. Wilms’ tumor most often affects children ages 3 to 4 and becomes much less common after age 5.