Mature cystic teratoma, which is the most common benign ovarian tumor type, is known to occasionally undergo malignant transformation. Malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma is extremely difficult either to predict or to detect early.
Are teratomas benign or malignant?
In its pure form, mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is always benign, but in approximately 0.2-2% of cases, it may undergo malignant transformation into one of its elements, the majority of which are squamous cell carcinomas.
Do teratomas have malignant potential?
Although any of the constituent tissues of teratoma has the potential to undergo malignant transformation, squamous cell carcinoma is the most commonly associated cancer.
Is a teratoma a type of cancer?
They are benign (not cancer) but may come back after being removed by surgery. Mature teratomas usually occur in the sacrum or tailbone in newborns or in the testicles or ovaries at the start of puberty. They are often called dermoid cysts.
Are cystic teratomas benign?
Cystic teratoma is the most common ovarian neoplasm. It consists of well-differentiated derivatives of germ cell layers (i.e., ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) developing as hair, muscle, teeth, or bone. These tumors are generally benign but may undergo a malignant transformation in 1% to 2% of the cases.
How can you tell if a teratoma is malignant?
A firm mass can be a sign of malignancy. Blood tests are used to test for elevated levels of the hormones BhCG and AFP. Ultrasound imaging can help identify the progress of the teratoma. To check if cancer has spread to other parts of the body, your doctor will request X-rays of your chest and abdomen.
What are cystic teratomas?
Cystic teratoma is a type of germ cell tumor that contains well-differentiated tissues developed from three germ cell layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm).
What the difference between mature cystic teratoma and immature cystic teratoma?
Mature teratomas are benign tumors, which are most often composed of derivatives of two or three germ cell layers. Only in rare cases is the transition into a malignant tumor observed (most often squamous cell carcinoma). In contrast, immature teratomas are malignant ovarian tumors.
What is the difference between a dermoid cyst and a teratoma?
Terminology. Although they have very similar imaging appearances, the two have a fundamental histological difference: a dermoid is composed only of dermal and epidermal elements (which are both ectodermal in origin), whereas teratomas also comprise mesodermal and endodermal elements.
Do teratomas metastasize?
During and after puberty, all teratomas are regarded as malignant because even mature teratomas (composed of entirely mature histologic elements) can metastasize to retroperitoneal lymph nodes or to other systems. Reported rates of metastasis vary from 29-76%.
Is a dermoid cyst a baby?
A dermoid cyst is present from birth. It happens when the skin layers don’t grow together as they should. This happens during a baby’s development in the uterus. They are often found on the head, neck, or face.