How rare is a germ cell tumor?

Germ cell tumors are rare. Germ cell tumors account for about 2 to 4 percent of all cancers in children and adolescents younger than age 20. Germ cell tumors can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. The most common sites for metastasis are the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, and central nervous system.

What is the survival rate of germ cell tumor?

The 5-year survival rate for teens ages 15 to 19 is 93%. The survival and cure rates also depend on several factors, including the stage of the disease. The cure rate for children with a stage I or stage II germ cell tumor is 90%. The cure rate for a stage III tumor is 87%.

Are all germ cell tumors cancerous?

Germ cell tumors are growths of cells that form from reproductive cells. The tumors may be cancerous or not cancerous. Most germ cell tumors occur in the testicles or the ovaries. Some germ cell tumors occur in other areas of the body, such as the abdomen, brain and chest, though it’s not clear why.

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Are germ cell tumors curable?

Germ cell tumours generally respond very well to chemotherapy and most people are cured. Even cancers that have spread are still very treatable with chemotherapy.

What is the most common germ cell tumor?

Teratomas are the most common type of germ cell tumor to develop in extragonadal (not in the ovary or testes) areas. Doctors usually treat teratomas with surgery because chemotherapy doesn’t work in a benign tumor.

Do germ cell tumors come back?

How do providers treat benign (noncancerous) ovarian germ cell tumors? Healthcare providers remove benign tumors surgically. Sometimes, they need to remove the ovary (or part of the ovary) when removing the tumor. Benign tumors rarely grow back after providers remove them.

What percentage of germ cell tumors are malignant?

Malignant germ cell tumors of the mediastinum are uncommon, representing only 3 to 10% of tumors originating in the mediastinum. They are much less common than germinal tumors arising in the testes, and account for only 1 to 5% of all germ cell neoplasms.

Do germ cell tumors grow fast?

There are two types of germ cell tumors that start in the gonads, or reproductive organs: seminomas, which are slower-growing, and nonseminomas, which are faster-growing tumors.

Is a germ cell tumor a solid tumor?

Germ cell tumors in the testes of an adolescent male commonly present as an enlarging, solid mass, which may be painful. Within the ovaries, germ cell tumors can usually be distinguished from ovarian cysts, which are much more common, using ultrasound. Germ cell tumors can spread to lymph nodes, lung, liver, and brain.

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What are the signs of germ cell tumor?

Common signs of germ cell tumors include:

  • A mass on your ovaries or testicles.
  • Belly pain and swelling (caused by tumor)
  • Bathroom troubles (a hard time pooping or holding in your pee, if the tumor is near your pelvis)
  • Breast growth, pubic hair, or vaginal bleeding at an earlier age than normal.
  • Belly or chest pain.

How common is Dysgerminoma?

The most commonly occurring GCT is the dysgerminoma, which accounts for approximately 2% of all ovarian cancers. Although rare, dysgerminomas are important irrespective of incidence because they most commonly affect women of reproductive age (ie, < 30 y).

Are germ cell tumors hereditary?

The cause of germ cell tumors isn’t fully known. Some gene defects passed on from parents to children (inherited) may increase the risk for germ cell tumors. Some genetic syndromes can cause abnormal growth of the male and female reproductive systems.

How do you treat germ cell tumors?

Most patients with a cancerous germ cell tumor will need chemotherapy. The drugs that are commonly used for treating germ cell tumors include bleomycin (available as a generic drug), cisplatin (available as a generic drug), etoposide (Etopophos), and ifosfamide (Ifex).

Does a teratoma need to be removed?

Teratomas are usually benign in newborns, but may still require surgical removal.